SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY STUDY OF CORN SILK (ZEA MAYS L.) IN COMBINATION WITH BINAHONG (ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA (TEN.) STEENIS LEAVES ON WISTAR RATS

  • Elin Yulinah Sukandar Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • Irda Fidrianny Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • Tita Nofianti Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • Dewi Safitri Institut Teknologi Bandung

Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: Nowadays, modern medication has been shifting into natural-based medication. These phenomena lead to the elevation of the use of
traditional medicine. Similar to modern medicine, nature-based medicine should meet the standard which is including safety, efficacy, and quality
aspects. The medicine must be safe during the consumption period and scientifically proven through preclinical toxicity test. It can be obtained
through acute and subchronic toxicity test. Besides, it should have abilities to treat certain diseases and ease of accessing such medicines should be
guaranteed particularly for patients. From our previous study, a combination of ethanolic extract of corn silk (CS) and binahong leaves (BL) showed
activity in ameliorating kidneys function on renal failure rat’s model. Therefore, to obtain standardized traditional medicine, a study on safety must
be accomplished.
Methods: A 90-day oral toxicity study using Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate subchronic toxicology. The combination of extracts were given in
three different levels daily for 90 days and a 120 days toxicity test was carried out for satellite groups.
Results: Administration of extracts in combination to rats for 90 days did not alter behavioral, motoric activities, urine, hematological, chemical,
and histopathological parameters, and it was suggested a no-observed adverse-effect level of CS 450 mg/kg and BL 600 mg/kg in combination. Even
though the number of white blood cells in all treated groups arose compared to the control group, but the values were still in the normal range.
Conclusion: These results indicate that the combination of ethanolic extract of CS and BL can be generally meet safety requirement as traditional
medicine.
Keywords: Corn silk, Zea mays L., Binahong leaves, Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis, Subchronic toxicity test.

References

REFERENCES
1. The Centre of Drug and Food Analysis. Standardized Procedure of
Toxicity Test. Jakarta: The Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia;
2009. p. 1-82.
2. Maksimovic Z, Malencic D, Kovacevic N. Polyphenol contents and
antioxidant activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Bioresour Technol
2005;96(8):873-7.
3. Hasanudin K, Hashim P, Mustafa S. Corn silk (Stigma maydis) in
healthcare: A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Molecules
2012;17(8):9697-715.
4. Ditjen PO, Depkes RI. Materia Medika Indonesia. jilid 6. Jakarta: The
Ministry of Healt of Republic of Indonesia, 1995. p. 139-42, 321, 3245,
336.
5. El-Ghorab A, El-Massry KF, Shibamoto T. Chemical composition
of the volatile extract and antioxidant activities of the volatile and
nonvolatile extracts of Egyptian corn silk (Zea mays L.). J Agric Food
Chem 2007;55(5):9124-7.
6. Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. London: Dorling
Kindersley; 2001.
7. Steenkamp V. Phytomedicines for the prostate. Fitoterapia
2003;74(6):545-52.
8. Maksimovic ZA, Kovacevic N. Preliminary assay on the antioxidative
activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Fitoterapia 2003;74(1-2):144-7.
9. Hu QL, Zhang LJ, Li YN, Ding YJ, Li FL. Purification and
antifatigue activity of flavonoids from corn silk. Int J Phys Sci
2010;5(4):321-6.
10. Fadliah F. The effect of water extract of corn silk (Maydis stigma)
on gentamicin and piroxicam induced renal failure on rats. Bachelor
theses, School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology; 2008.
p. 35-43.
11. Ebrahimzadeh MA, Pourmorad F, Hafezi S. Antioxidant activities of
Iranian corn silk. Turk J Biol 2008;32:43-9.
12. Lemmens RH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of SouthEast
Asia.
Vol.
12.
Leiden 2003. p.
72-3.
13. Sukandar EY, Fidrianny I, Adiwibowo LF. Efficacy of ethanol extract
of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) steenis leaves on improving kidney failure
in rats. Int J Pharmacol 2011;7(8):850-5.
14. Sukandar EY, Sigit JI, Adiwibowo LF. Study of kidney repair
mechanisms of corn silk (Zea mays L.) hair – Binahong (Anredera
cordifolia (Ten) steenis) leaves combination in rat model of kidney
failure. Int J Pharmacol 2013;9(1):12-23.
15. Salasanti CD, Sukandar EY, Fidrianny I. Acute and sub chronic toxicity
study of ethanol extract of Anredera cordifolia (ten.) V. Steenis leaves.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(5):348-52.
16. Alam EA. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of
Egyptian maydis stigma (Zea mays hairs) rich in some bioactive
constituents. J Am Sci 2011;7:726-9.
17. Bhaigyabati T, Kiritika T, Ramya J, Usha K. Phytochemical constituents
and antioxidant activity of various extracts of corn silk (Ze mays L). Res
J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2011;2:986-93.
18. Astuti SM, Sakinah MA, Andayani R, Risch A. Determination of
saponin compound from Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis plant
(Binahong) to potential treatment for several diseases. J Agric Sci
2011;3(4):224-32.
19. Winder CV, Lembke LA, Stephens MD. Comparative bioassay of drugs
in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats: Flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid
and phenylbutazone. Arthritis Rheum 1969;12 Suppl 5:472-52.
20. Teo S, Stirling D, Thomas S, Hoberman A, Kiorpes A,
Khetani V. A 90-day oral gavage toxicity study of D-methylphenidate
and D, L-methylphenidate in Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology
2002;179(3):183-96.
21. Tiwari U, Rastogi B, Singh P, Saraf DK, Vyas SP. Immunomodulatory
effects of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens in experimental
animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;92(1):113-9.
22. Marshal WJ. Clinical Chemistry. 3
ed. London: Mosby; 1995.
p. 231-2.
rd
23. Wolf PL. Methods and Technique in Clinical Chemistry. New York:
John Willey and Sons Inc.; 1972. p. 135-6, 159, 189-90, 377-82.
24. Kanter MW. Clinical Chemistry. Indiana: The Bobbs-Merrill Company
Inc.; 1975. p. 65, 74-5, 111-4, 184-6.
25. Shaila HP, Udopa SL, Udopa AL. Hypolipidemic effect of Terminalia
arjuna in cholesterol fed rabbits. Fitoterapia 1997;68:405-9.
Statistics
305 Views | 566 Downloads
How to Cite
Sukandar, E. Y., I. Fidrianny, T. Nofianti, and D. Safitri. “SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY STUDY OF CORN SILK (ZEA MAYS L.) IN COMBINATION WITH BINAHONG (ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA (TEN.) STEENIS LEAVES ON WISTAR RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 9, no. 1, Jan. 2016, pp. 292-6, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/9794.
Section
Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)