FORMULATION AND PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF MICROEMULSION AND W/O/W MULTIPLE EMULSIONS DOSAGE FORMS WITH ALPHA ARBUTIN, LACTIC ACID, AND NIACINAMIDE AS SKIN-WHITENING COSMETICS


Silvia Surini, Tina Mellani

Abstract


Objective: The present study aimed to formulate and determine the physical stability of microemulsion and W/O/W multiple emulsions, containing
α arbutin, lactic acid, and niacinamide, as skin-whitening cosmetics.
Methods: A skin lightening effect can also be obtained from lactic acid, which accelerates the turnover of pigmented cells in the epidermis, and
from niacinamide, which inhibits the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes. These active ingredients were combined in
microemulsion and W/O/W multiple emulsions dosage forms in various concentrations of Tween 80 as an emulsifier. An evaluation and physical
stability test were carried out during 12 weeks of storage at 28±2°C, 4±2°C, and 40±2°C, as well as a cycling test.
Results: The results showed that a microemulsion could be prepared in 25-35% of Tween 80 (surfactant) and 10% of ethanol (co-surfactant), and
that it had globule sizes of 2.397-16.8 nm, a transparent, pseudoplastic flow, and was most stable in storage at 28±2°C. Microemulsion with 35% of
Tween 80 was the most stable microemulsion formula because it had the smallest globule size, the most stable distribution profiles of globule sizes,
and the highest viscosity. W/O/W multiple emulsions could formulated made with 2.5-4.5% of Tween 80 (external emulsifier) and 3% of Span 80
(internal emulsifier); these emulsions had a pseudoplastic-thixotropic flow and were most stable in storage at 28±2°C.
Conclusions: The formulation of multiple emulsions with 2.5% of Tween 80 was the most stable formula, with a stable distribution profile of globule
sizes during 8 weeks of storage at temperatures of 28±2°C, 4±2°C, and 40±2°C.


Keywords


Microemulsion, Multiple emulsions, W/O/W, α-arbutin, Lactic acid, Niacinamide, Stability.

| PDF |

References


Dixit GR, Mathur VB. Microemulsions: Platform for improvement of

solubility and dissolution of poorly soluble drugs. Asian J Pharm Clin

Res 2015;8(5):7-17.

Maeda K. In vitro effectiveness of several whitening cosmetic

components in human melanocytes. J Soc Cosmet Chem

;42(6):361-8.

Funayama M, Arakawa H, Yamamoto R, Nishino T, Shin T, Murao S.

Effects of alpha-and beta-arbutin on activity of tyrosinases from

mushroom and mouse melanoma. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem

;59(1):143-4.

Usuki A, Ohashi A, Sato H, Ochiai Y, Ichihashi M, Funasaka Y. The

inhibitory effect of glycolic acid and lactic acid on melanin synthesis in

melanoma cells. Exp Dermatol 2003;12 Suppl 2:43-50.

Hakozaki T, Minwalla L, Zhuang J, Chhoa M, Matsubara A,

Miyamoto K, et al. The effect of niacin amide on reducing cutaneous

pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer. Br J Dermatol

;147(1):20-31.

Castanedo-Cazares JP, Larraga-Pinones G, Ehniz-Perez A, Fuentes-

Ahumada C, Oros-Ovalle C, Smoller BR, et al. Topical 4% and

desonide 0.05% for treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation:

A randomized, multiple-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Cosmet

Investig Dermatol 2013;6:29-36.

Lawrence MJ, Rees GD. Microemulsion-based media as novel drug

delivery systems. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2000;45(1):89-121.

Arsiwala S, Tahiliani S, Jerajani H, Chandrashekhar BS,

Aurangabadkar S, Kohli M, et al. Evaluation of image blanc complexion

lightner and image blanc spot lightner for hyperpigmentation in face

and neck. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6(3):90-3.

Tadros TF. Future developments in cosmetic formulations. Int J Cosmet

Sci 1992;14(3):93-111.

Akhtar N, Ahmad M, Khan HM, Akram J, Gulfishan G, Mahmood

A, et al. Formulation and characterization of a multiple emulsions

containing 1% L-ascorbic acid. Bull Chem Soc Ethiop 2010;24:1-10.

Jadhav KR, Shetye SL, Kadam VJ. Design and evaluation of

microemulsion based drug delivery system. Int J Adv Pharm Sci

;1(2):156-6.

Martin A, Swarbick J, Cammarata A. Physical Pharmacy. 3rd ed.

(Joshita, tranl.). Jakarta: UI Press; 2008.

Koocheki A, Kadkhodaee R. Effect of alyssum homolocarpum seed

gum, tween 80 and NaCl on droplets characteristics, flow properties and physical stability of ultrasonically prepared corn oil-in-water

emulsions. Food Hydrocoll 2011;25:1149-57.

Jiao J, Burgess DJ. Rheology and stability of water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions containing Span 83 and Tween 80. AAPS PharmSci

;5(1):E7.




About this article

Title

FORMULATION AND PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF MICROEMULSION AND W/O/W MULTIPLE EMULSIONS DOSAGE FORMS WITH ALPHA ARBUTIN, LACTIC ACID, AND NIACINAMIDE AS SKIN-WHITENING COSMETICS

Keywords

Microemulsion, Multiple emulsions, W/O/W, α-arbutin, Lactic acid, Niacinamide, Stability.

DOI

10.22159/ijap.2017.v9s1.39_45

Date

30-10-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics
Vol. 9, Special Issue (Oct.), 2017 [PTMDS 2017] Page: 67-70

Online ISSN

0975-7058

Statistics

15 Views | 27 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Silvia Surini
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.
Indonesia

Tina Mellani
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Indonesia


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.