MICROENCAPSULATION OF GRAPE SEED OIL (VITIS VINIFERA L.) WITH GUM ARABIC AS A COATING POLYMER BY CROSSLINKING EMULSIFICATION METHOD


Silvia Surini, Fariha Ulfah Azzahrah, Delly Ramadon

Abstract


Objective: Grape seed oil (GSO) from Vitis vinifera L. is a liquid vegetable oil which has been used mainly for its linoleic acid content. However, there are many efforts to convert the liquid form of the oil into a solid form due to the instability under storage condition. The aim of this study was to convert GSO into the solid microcapsules by emulsion crosslinking method with gum arabic as a coating polymer.

Methods: The GSO was formulated with gum arabic in the ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5. Gum arabic solution was emulsified with GSO using Span 80 and glutaraldehyde. The emulsion was dropped into a beaker glass of isopropyl alcohol to form microcapsules. The microcapsules were dried at 70 °C. Then, they were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, swelling index, water content, and entrapment efficiency.

Results: The produced microcapsules of GSO showed white yellowish color and spherical shape. The particle size of F1, F2, F3 and F4 microcapsules were 69 μm, 82 μm, 125 μm, and 131 μm, respectively. The water content of the F1–F4 ranged from 4.37±0.34 to 5.70±0.92% and swelling indexes were ranged from 5.54±0.01 to 5.94±0.04. The value of entrapment efficiency of F1, F2, F3, and F4 were 17.33±0.603, 20.73±0.678, 34.22±1.195, and 67.15±2.019%, respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this investigation showed that GSO could be converted into the solid spherical microcapsules by emulsion crosslinking method using gum arabic. Taken together, this study has provided the most promising formulation of GSO microcapsules for further production in pharmaceutical industry.


Keywords


Crosslinking emulsification, Grape seed oil, Gum arabic, Microcapsules, Microencapsulation

| PDF | HTML |

References


Maier T, Schieber A, Kammerer DR, Carle R. Residues of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oil production as a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Food Chem 2009;112:551–9.

Iannone M, Mare R, Paolino D, Gagliardi A, Froiio F, Cosco D, et al. Characterization and in vitro anticancer properties of chitosan-microencapsulated flavan-3-ols-rich grape seed extracts. Int J Biol Macromol 2017;104:1039–45.

Passos CP, Silva RM, Da FA, Coimbra MA, Silva CM. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seed (Vitis vinifera L.) oil effect of the operating conditions upon oil composition and antioxidant capacity. Chem Eng J 2010;160:634–40.

Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A. Grape seed oil compounds: biological and chemical actions for health. Nutr Metab Insights 2016;9:59–64.

Bail S, Stuebiger G, Krist S, Unterweger H, Buchbauer G. Characterisation of various grape seed oils by volatile compounds, triacylglycerol composition, total phenols and antioxidant capacity. Food Chem 2008;108:1122–32.

Lachman J, Hejtmankova A, Kotikova Z, Dedina M, Stralkova R, Hönig V. Stability of grape seed oil and its antioxidant tocotrienols. Adv Materials Res 2014;1032:370–3.

Dubey R, Shami TC, Bhasker Rao KU. Microencapsulation technology and applications. Def Sci J 2009;59:82–95.

Venkatesan P, Manavalan R, Valliappan K. Microencapsulation: a vital technique in novel drug delivery system. J Pharm Sci Res 2009;1:26–35.

Patel P, SS P. Preparation and characterization of crosslinked gum acacia microspheres by single step emulsion in–situ polymer crosslinking method: apotential vehicle for controlled drug delivery. Res Rev J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;2:40–8.

Khalil Azzaoui, Premier M, Hammouti B, Universit AL, Premier M. The gum arabic in the southern region of morocco. J Chem 2015;3:99–107.

Surini S, Nursatyani K, Ramadon D. Gel formulation containing microcapsules of grape seed oil (Vitis vinifera L.) for skin moisturizer. J Young Pharm 2018;10:41–7.

Pandta HX, Nguyen CN. Formulation and evaluation of microcapsules of trihexyphenidyle hydrochloride by solvent evaporation method. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;3:539–44.

Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official Method of Analysis International. AOAC International; 2006.

Damayanti S, Sigi VA, Julianti E. Transesterification of linoleic acid in grape seed (Vitis vinifera L.) oiland its analytical method development using gas chromatography. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:4–7.

Freitas S, Merkle H, Gander B. Microencapsulation by solvent extraction/evaporation: reviewing the state of the art of microsphere preparation process technology. J Controlled Release 2005;102:313–32.

Goswami S, Naik S. Natural gums and its pharmaceutical application. J Sci Innovative Res 2014;3:112-21.

Verbeek C. Products and applications of biopolymers. Croatia: InTech; 2012. p. 9–12.

Fernandes R, Borges S, Botrel D. Gum Arabic/Starch/Maltodextrin/Inulin as wall materials on the microencapsulation of rosemary essential oil. Carbohydr Polym 2014;101:524–32.

Vidal JL, Avello LM, Loyola CC, Campos PJ, Aqueveque MP, R Dungan S, et al. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties. Chil J Agric Res 2013;73:17–23.

Malvern. A basic guide to particle characterization. United Kingdom: Malvern; 2012.

Ramadon D, Wirarti GA, Anwar E. Novel transdermal ethosomal gel containing green tea (Cammelia sinensis L. Kuntze) leaves extract: formulation and in vitro penetration study. J Young Pharm 2017;9:336–40.

O'Donnell P, McGinity J. Preparation of microspheres by the solvent evaporation technique. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 1997;28:25–42.

Anwar E, Utami T, Ramadon D. Transfersomal gel containing green tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) leaves extract: increasing in vitro penetration. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:294.

Pavanveena C, Kavitha K, Anil KSN. Formulation and evaluation of trimetazidine hydrochloride loaded chitosan microsphers. Int J Appl Pharm 2010;2:11-4.

Kuck L, Norena C. Microencapsulation of grape (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) skin phenolic extract using gum arabic, polydextrose, and partially hydrolyzed guar gum as encapsulating agents. Food Chem 2016;194:569–76.

Ramachandran S, Nandhakumar S, Dhanaraju M. Formulation and characterization of glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan biodegradable microspheres loaded with famotidine. Tropical J Pharm Res 2011;10:309–16.

Distantina S, Rochmadi R, Fahrurrozi M, Wiratni W. Preparation and characterization of glutaraldehyde–crosslinked kappa carrageenan hydrogel. Eng J 2013;17:57–66.




About this article

Title

MICROENCAPSULATION OF GRAPE SEED OIL (VITIS VINIFERA L.) WITH GUM ARABIC AS A COATING POLYMER BY CROSSLINKING EMULSIFICATION METHOD

Keywords

Crosslinking emulsification, Grape seed oil, Gum arabic, Microcapsules, Microencapsulation

DOI

10.22159/ijap.2018v10i6.24093

Date

21-09-2018

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics
Articles In Press [Scheduled in Nov-Dec 2018] Page: 194-198

Online ISSN

0975-7058

Authors & Affiliations

Silvia Surini
Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, East Java, 16424, Indonesia
Indonesia

Fariha Ulfah Azzahrah
Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, East Java, 16424, Indonesia
Indonesia

Delly Ramadon
Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, East Java, 16424, Indonesia


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.