APPLICATION OF FTIR SPECTRA COMBINED WITH CHEMOMETRICS FOR ANALYSIS OF CANDLENUT OIL ADULTERATION
Objective: The aim of this study was to use FTIR spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics techniques for quantification and classification of candlenut oil (CnO) from oil adulterants, namely sunflower oil (SFO), soybean oil (SyO), and corn oil (CO).
Methods: The spectra of all samples were scanned using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrophotometer using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as sampling technique at mid infrared region (4000-650 cm-1). Multivariate calibrations of principle component regression (PCR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were used for quantitative models to predict the levels of CnO in the binary mixtures with SFO, SyO, and CO.
Results: The results showed that CnO in SFO was best quantified using PCR at wavenumbers region of 3100-2800 cm-1. Quantitative analysis of CnO in SyO was carried out using PLSR with normal spectra mode using combined wavenumbers of 1765-1625 and 839-663 cm-1, while CnO in CO was analyzed quantitatively using normal spectra at wavenumbers of 970-857 cm-1. The coefficient of determination (R2) obtained were>0.99 with low values of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). The results of discriminant analysis revealed that authentic CnO can be discriminated from CnO adulterated with SFO, SyO and CO using selected wavenumbers.
Conclusion: FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics could be used as rapid and reliable method for authentication of candlenut oil (CnO) adulterated with other oils.
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