• DAVID ALEXANDER Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
  • Abdul Rohman nstitute of Halal Industry and Systems (IHIS), Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia


Objective: The aim of this research was to validate inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for quantitative analysis of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cuprum (Cu), mangan (Mn) and nickel (Ni) in milk products.

Methods: The heavy metals in milk were determined using ICP-AES at optimized wavelength. The method was validated by assessing several validation parameters which included linearity and range, accuracy, precision and sensitivity expressed by the limit of detection and limit of quantification. The validated method was then used for the analysis of milks commercially available.

Results: ICP-AES for determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Ni was linear over a certain concentration range with a coefficient correlation value of>0.997. The limit of quantification values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Ni were 0.0047; 0.0050; 0.0066; 0.0061; and 0.0169 µg/ml, respectively. The precision of analytical method exhibited relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 3.18%; 4.17%; 3.05%; 2.93%; and 4.47% during repeatability test and 5.28%; 5.06%; 3.67%; 3.67%; and 11.17% during intermediate precision of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Ni respectively. The recoveries of these metals assessed using standard addition method were 92.25; 90.88; 102.87; 94.50; and 86.85%, respectively.

Conclusion: ICP-AES offered a reliable and fast method for the determination of heavy metals in milk products. The developed method could be proposed as an official method for determination of heavy metals in milk products.

Keywords: Validation, ICP-AES, Heavy metals, Wet digestion, Milk


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