• Eka Indra Setyawan Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Udayana, Bali, Indonesia.
  • Erna Prawita Setyowati Departement of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
  • Abdul Rohman Departement of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
  • Akhmad Kharis Nugroho Departement of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


Objective: This study was intended to optimize the extraction condition using central composite design.

Methods: Central composite cesign with three independent variables, namely water temperature, brewing time, and brewing number were used to obtain the optimum extraction condition. Two dependent variables, namely yield of extraction and epigallocatechingallate level were used as a response parameter. Epigallocatechin gallate level was determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography method.

Results: Extraction yield was varied from 0.30 g to 0.72 g. All variables, namely water temperature, brewing time, and brewing number were able to increase the extraction yield. Epigallocatechingallate level was varied from 190.23 mg/g to 301.74 mg/g. Water temperature, brewing time, and both interaction were able to increase the epigallocatechin gallate level in green tea extract.

Conclusion: Optimum extraction condition was shown using hot water at a temperature of 95 °C for 20 min and two-times infusions. The condition obtained extraction yield and epigallocatechingallate of 0.70 g and 286.87 mg/g dry weight, respectively.

Keywords: Green tea, Extraction, Epigallocatechingallate, Optimization, Central composite design


1. Perva-Uzunalić A, Skerget M, Knez Z. Extraction of active ingredients from green tea (Camellia sinensis): Extraction efficiency of major catechins and caffeine. Food Chem 2006;96:597–605.
2. Ramadon D, Pramesti SS, Anwar E. Formulation, stability test and in vitro penetration study of transethosoma gel containing green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves extract. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:91–6.
3. Isnan AP, Jufri M. Formulation of niosomal gel containing green tea extract (Camellia sinensis L.) using thin-layer hydration. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:38–43.
4. Hajiaghaalipour F, Sanusi J, Kanthimathi MS. Temperature and time of steeping affect the antioxidant properties of white, green, and black tea infusions. J Food Sci 2016;81:H246-54.
5. Lambert JD, Kim DH, Zheng R, Yang CS. Transdermal delivery of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea polyphenol, in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58:599–604.
6. Demir E, Serdar G, Sokmen M. Comparison of some extraction methods for isolation of catechins and caffeine from turkish green tea. Int J Second Metab 2015;2:16–25.
7. Banerjee S, Chatterjee J. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules. J Food Sci Technol 2015;52:3158–68.
8. Venditti E, Bacchetti T, Tiano L. Hot vs. cold water steeping of different teas: Do they affect antioxidant activity? Food Chem 2010;119:1597–604.
9. Vuong QV, Golding JB, Stathopoulos CE, Nguyen MH, Roach PD. Optimizing conditions for the extraction of catechins from green tea using hot water. J Sep Sci 2011;34:3099–106.
10. Lee JW, Mo EJ, Choi JE. Effect of korean red ginseng extraction conditions on antioxidant activity, extraction yield, and ginsenoside Rg1 and phenolic content: optimization using response surface methodology. J Ginseng Res 2016;40:229–36.
11. Sankalpa KB, Mathew SM. Response surface optimization of extraction parameters of green tea. Int J Agric Environ Biotechnol 2017;10:209.
12. Lee JW, Mo EJ, Choi JE. Effect of extraction conditions of green tea on antioxidant activity and EGCG content: optimization using response surface methodology. J Ginseng Res 2016;40:270–4.
13. Gadkari PV, Kadimi US, Balaraman M. Catechin concentrates of garden tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.): extraction/isolation and evaluation of chemical composition. J Sci Food Agric 2014;94:2921–8.
14. Komes D, Horzic D, Belscak A, Ganic KK, Vulic I. Green tea preparation and its influence on the content of bioactive compounds. Food Res Int 2010;43:167–76.
15. N Politis S, Colombo P, Colombo GM, Rekkas D. Design of experiments (DoE) in pharmaceutical development. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017;43:889–901.
16. Martono Y, Martono S. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis for determination of gallic acid, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate concentration in various tea bags product. Agritech 2013;32:362–9.
17. Sugihartini N, Fudholi A, Pramono S, Sismindari S. Validation method of quantitative analysis of epigallocatechin gallate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmaciana 2014;4:111–5.
18. Saito ST, Welzel A, Suyenaga ES, Bueno F. A method for fast determination of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin (EC), catechin (C) and caffeine (CAF) in green tea using HPLC. Ciênciae Tecnol Aliment 2006;26:394–400.
19. Setyawan EI, Rohman A, Setyowati EP, Nugroho AK. Application of factorial design on the extraction of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.). J Appl Pharm Sci 2018;8:131–8.
20. Prabaningdyah NK, Riyanto S, Rohman A, Siregar C. Application of HPLC and response surface methodology for simultaneous determination of curcumin and desmethoxy curcumin in curcuma syrup formulation. J Appl Pharm Sci 2017;7:58–64.
21. Bezerra MA, Santelli RE, Oliveira EP, Villar LS, Escaleira LA. Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta 2008;76:965–77.
22. Labbe D, Tetu B, Trudel D, Bazinet L. Catechin stability of EGC-and EGCG-enriched tea drinks produced by a two-step extraction procedure. Food Chem 2008;111:139–43.
23. Wang H, Helliwell K. Epimerisation of catechins in green tea infusions. Food Chem 2000;70:337–44.
24. Krupkova O, Ferguson SJ, Wuertz Kozak K. Stability of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate and its activity in liquid formulations and. pdf. J Nutr Biochem 2016;37:1–12.
25. Liang H, Liang Y, Dong J, Lu J. Tea extraction method in relation to control epimerization of catechin. J Sci Food Agric 2007;87:1748–52.
26. Chen Z, Zhu QY, Tsang D, Huang Y. Degradation of green tea catechins in tea drinks. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:477–82.
27. Vuong QV, Golding JB, Nguyen M, Roach PD. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea. J Sep Sci 2010;33:3415–28.
28. Vuong QV, Stathopoulos CE, Nguyen MH, Golding JB, Roach PD. Isolation of green tea catechins and their utilization in the food industry. Food Rev Int 2011;27:227–47.
29. Yang DJ, Hwang LS, Lin JT. Effects of different steeping methods and storage on caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in bag tea infusions. J Chromatogr A 2007;1156:312–20.
30. Yu LX, Amidon G, Khan MA. Understanding pharmaceutical quality by design. AAPS J 2014;16:771–83.
31. Collins LM, Dziak JJ, Li R. Design of experiments with multiple independent variables: a resource management perspective on complete and reduced factorial designs. Psychol Methods 2009;14:202–24.
138 Views | 25 Downloads
How to Cite
Setyawan, E., Setyowati, E., Rohman, A., & Nugroho, A. (2018). CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN FOR OPTIMIZING EXTRACTION OF EGCG FROM GREEN TEA LEAF (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L.). International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(6), 211-216. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2018v10i6.29245
Original Article(s)