COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FATTY ACID PROFILES IN PATIN (PANGASIUS MICRONEMUS) AND GABUS (CHANNA STRIATA) FISH OIL AND ITS AUTHENTICATION USING FTIR SPECTROSCOPY COMBINED WITH CHEMOMETRICS
Keywords:Fatty acid, Patin fish oil, Gabus fish oil, Chemometrics, Authentication
Objective: The aims of this research were to analyse the fatty acids contained in Patin (Pangasius micronemus) and Gabus (Channa striata) fish oils also its authentication using FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics.
Methods: Patin fish oil (PFO) was extracted from patin flesh using the maceration method with petroleum benzene as the solvent, while gabus fish oil (GFO) was purchased from the market in Yogyakarta. The analysis of fatty acid was done using gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The authentication was performed using FTIR spectrophotometer and chemometrics methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the proximity of oils based on the characteristic similarity. The quantification of adulterated PFO was performed using multivariate calibrations, partial least square (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR). The classification between authentic oils and those adulterated used discriminant analysis (DA).
Results: The level of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in PFO is higher than in GFO. The PLS and PCR methods using the second derivative spectra at wavenumbers of 666–3050 cm-1 offered the highest values of coefficient of determination (R2) and lowest root means the square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP).
Conclusion: The PCA method was successfully used to determine the proximity of oils. Among oils studied, PFO has a similarity fatty acid composition with GFO. The DA method was able to screen pure PFO from adulterated PFO without any misclassification reported. FTIR spectroscopy in combined with chemometrics can be used for authentication and quantification.
Hooper, Claudie P, De Souto Barreto M, Pahor M, Weiner B, Vellas. The relationship of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membranes with cognitive function and brain structure: a review focussed on Alzheimer’s disease. J Prev Alzheimer's 2018;5:78-84.
Song C, Shieh CH, Wu YS, Kalueff A, Gaikwad S, Su KP. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease: acting separately or synergistically? Prog Lipid Res 2016;62:41-54.
Stark KD, Van Elswyk ME, Higgins MR, Weatherford CA, Salem Jr N. Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults. Prog Lipid Res 2016;63:132–52.
Ammann EM, Pottala JV, Robinson JG, Espeland MA, Harris WS. Erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acids are inversely associated with incident dementia: secondary analyses of longitudinal data from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS),” prostaglandins leukot. Essent Fatty Acids 2017;121:68–75.
Hashim RB, Jamil EF, Zulkipli FH, Daud JM. Fatty acid compositions of silver catfish, pangasius sp. farmed in several rivers of pahang, Malaysia. J Oleo Sci 2015;64:205–9.
Thammapat P, Raviyan P, Siriamornpun S. Proximate and fatty acids composition of the muscles and viscera of Asian catfish (Pangasius bocourti). Food Chem 2010;122:223–7.
Molla MR, Asaduzzaman AK, Mia MA, Uddin M, Biswas S, Uddin MS. Nutritional status, characterization and fatty acid composition of oil and lecithin isolated from freshwater fish shoul (Channa striata). Int Nutr Food Sci 2016;5:9.
Rodionova OY, Titova AV, Pomerantsev AL. Discriminant analysis is an inappropriate method of authentication. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 2016;78:17–22.
Rohman A, Che Man YBC. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with palm oil. Food Res Int 2010;43:886–92.
Paradkar MM, Irudayaraj JA. Rapid FTIR spectroscopic method for estimation of caffeine in soft drinks and total methylxanthines in tea and coffee. J Food Sci 2002;67:2507–11.
Ballabio D, Todeschini R. Multivariate classification for qualitative analysis, in: In. DW Sun. (Ed). Infrared spectroscopy for food quality analysis and control. Elsevier, London; 2009. p. 83-104.
Rohman A, Che Man YB. Analysis of cod-liver oil adulteration using fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. J Am Oil Chem Soc 2009;86:1149-53.
Rohman A, Che Man YB. Application of fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for authentication of cod-liver oil. Vib Spectrosc 2011; 55:141-5.
Rohman A, Widyaningtyas R, Amalia F. Authentication of cod liver oil from selected edible oils using FTIR spectrophotometry and chemometrics. Int Food Res J 2017;4:1362–7.
Nor Hayati I, Che Man YB, Tan CP, Nor Aini. Physicochemical characteristics of soybean oil, palm kernel olein, and their binary blends. Int J Food Sci Technol 2009;44:152–61.
Wang K, Yuan Y, Han S, Yang H. Application of attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and principal component analysis (PCA) for quick identifying of the bitumen produced by different manufacturers. Road Mater Pavement Desvol 2018;19:1940–9.
Guillen MD, Cabo N. Characterization of edible oils and lard by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Relationships between composition and frequency of concrete bands in the fingerprint region. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1997;74:1281–6.
De Luca M, Ioele G, Spatari C, Ragno G. Optimization of wavelength range and data interval in the chemometric analysis of complex pharmaceutical mixtures. J Pharm Anal 2016;6:64–9.
Gurdeniz G, Tokatli F, Ozen B. Differentiation of mixtures of monovarietal olive oils by mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2007;109: 1194–202.