OPTIMIZATION OF BENTONITE LIQUID DETERGENT FOR CLEANSING OF EXTREME NAJS USING SIMPLEX LATTICE DESIGN


Desi Susilo Wati, Abdul Rohman, Mufrod .

Abstract


Objective: The objective of this research was to formulate bentonite (clay) liquid detergent (BLD) using bentonite combined with vegetable oils intended for cleansing of extreme najs.

Methods: In this study, five formulas of BLD in combination with vegetable oils (coconut and palm oils) were made. The quality of BLD was evaluated in terms of organoleptic, foam power, foam stability, viscocity, pH, free alkali, and total fatty acids. These parameters were analyzed using  simplex lattice design (SLD) in order to get optimum formula of BLD. The verification of optimum formula was carried out using statistics of one sample t-test at P of 0.05.

Results: The results showed that optimum concentration of bentonite was 6.4% with percentage of cocount oil and palm oil of 95.1% and 4.9%, respectively. Based on one sample t-test, there was no significant difference of foam power, foam stability, and pH between optimum formula BLD predicted using SLD and that actually formulated.

Conclusion: BLD formulated can be used as innovatine means for cleansing extreme najs.

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7.           Malaysian Standard MS 1500 Halal Food-Production, preparation, handling and storage - General Guidelines. In Standards Malaysia (Eds.), Shah Alam: SIRIM Berhad, 2009.

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9.           Ab Rahman L, Masran F. Application of samak in halal industry based on Islamic fiqh. In Abdullah, I. (Eds.), Jurnal Halal. Kuala Lumpur: Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia, 2008.

10.       Indonesian National Standard SNI 06-4085-1996. The quality standards of liquid soap, National Standardization Body, Republic of Indonesia, 1996.

11.       The American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard Guide for pH of Aqueous Solutions of Soap and Detergents. ASTM D 1172-95, pp. 89–90. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1995.

12.       Angkatavanich J, Dahlan W, Nimmannit U, Sriprasert V, Sulongkood N. Development of clay liquid detergent for Islamic
cleansing and the stability study. Int J Cosmetic Sci., 2009; 31: 131–41.

13.       Chupa J. Detergent, Fatty Acids, and Shynthetic Detergents, Springer Science, New York, 2012.

14.       Lakey RT. The Chemistry and Manufacture of Cosmetics.Van Nonstrand Company Inc., Michigan, 1941.

15.       Steve D. Saponification Table Plus The Characteristics of Oils in Detergent, USA, 2008.

16.       Mitsui T. New Cosmetic Science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1997.

17.       van der Valk PGM, Crijns MC, Nater JP, Bleumink E. Skin irritancy of commercially available detergent and detergent bars as measured by water vapour loss. Dermatosen 1984; 32: 87–90.

18.       Khanam N, Alam MI, Iqbal QMA, Ali MY, Siddiqui A. A review on optimization of drug delivery system with experimental designs. Int J App Pharm 2018;10: 7-12.


Keywords


bentonite, liquid detergent, najs mughalladzah, simplex lattice design, islamic cleansing

References


Dzulkifly MH. An update on the progress and advances in research and development. Establishment of a Global Halal Research & Education Fund (GHREF) by Ministry of Awqaf and Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, 2012.

Izberk-Bilgin E, Nakata CC. A new look at faith-based marketing: The global halal market. Business Horizons 2016; 59: 285-92.

Temporal P. Islamic branding and marketing: Creating a global Islamic business. Mandaluyong City, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

Indonesian Act No. 33, 2014. Halal Products Assurance.

Yusuf E, Ab Yajid MS. Halal pharmaceuticals and cosmeceuticals from the perspective of higher education. Asian J Pharm Sci 2016; 11: 18–9.

Al-Qaradawi SY. The Lawful and The Prohibited in Islam. Cairo, Egypt: Al-Falah Foundation for Translation, Publication & Distribution, 2001.

Malaysian Standard MS 1500 Halal Food-Production, preparation, handling and storage - General Guidelines. In Standards Malaysia (Eds.), Shah Alam: SIRIM Berhad, 2009.

Kassim N, Hashim F, Hashim DM, Jol H. New Approach of Samak Clay Usage for Halal Industry Requirement. Procedia-Soc Behavioral Sci 2014; 121: 186 –92.

Ab Rahman L, Masran F. Application of samak in halal industry based on Islamic fiqh. In Abdullah, I. (Eds.), Jurnal Halal. Kuala Lumpur: Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia, 2008.

Indonesian National Standard SNI 06-4085-1996. The quality standards of liquid soap, National Standardization Body, Republic of Indonesia, 1996.

The American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard Guide for pH of Aqueous Solutions of Soap and Detergents. ASTM D 1172-95, pp. 89–90. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1995.

Angkatavanich J, Dahlan W, Nimmannit U, Sriprasert V, Sulongkood N. Development of clay liquid detergent for Islamic

cleansing and the stability study. Int J Cosmetic Sci., 2009; 31: 131–41.

Chupa J. Detergent, Fatty Acids, and Shynthetic Detergents, Springer Science, New York, 2012.

Lakey RT. The Chemistry and Manufacture of Cosmetics.Van Nonstrand Company Inc., Michigan, 1941.

Steve D. Saponification Table Plus The Characteristics of Oils in Detergent, USA, 2008.

Mitsui T. New Cosmetic Science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1997.

van der Valk PGM, Crijns MC, Nater JP, Bleumink E. Skin irritancy of commercially available detergent and detergent bars as measured by water vapour loss. Dermatosen 1984; 32: 87–90.

Khanam N, Alam MI, Iqbal QMA, Ali MY, Siddiqui A. A review on optimization of drug delivery system with experimental designs. Int J App Pharm 2018;10: 7-12.




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