• SIMRAN SHARMA Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur
  • RAVI KANT UPADHYAY Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur




Hornets stings, Venom and toxin, Anticancer activity, Anti-parasitic, Immune hypersensitivity activities


The present review article explains the salient features of hornet venom toxins, their physiological, biological and pharmacological effect on animals and man. Hornets sting very fast and inflict venom, which is more dangerous than those of bees. Hornet venom contains both proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous peptides i.e. scapin, adolapin, mellitin, mastoparans and enzymes, mainly phospholipase and hyaluronidase, which show multiple biological effects i.e. cytolytic, hemotoxic, neuro-inhibitor, anticancer, anti-parasitic, immune hypersensitive, inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-insect activities. Hornet stings are more painful to humans than typical wasp stings because hornet venom contains a large amount (5%) of acetylcholine. Hornet toxin components interact with receptors, ion channels and gated channels and affect the permeability functions of cells. Heavy envenomation shows quick pathophysiological lethal effects in man and pet. This article emphasizes the use of various hornet venom components for the production of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic and analgesic, anticancer drugs and insecticides. Hornet venom allergens could be used to prepare the rational design of component-resolved diagnosis of allergy and venom immunotherapy of inflicting patients.


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How to Cite

SHARMA, S., and R. K. UPADHYAY. “HYMENOPTERA TOXINS: BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY, PHARMACEUTICAL AND THERAPEUTIC USES”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 13, no. 4, Feb. 2021, pp. 8-20, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2021v13i4.40473.



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