• NIDHI YADAV Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur
  • RAVI KANT UPADHYAY Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur




Ticks, Blood sucking ectoparasites, Disease transmission, Saliva toxins, Biological effects, Tick control and management


Ticks are the most important ancient group of obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites of terrestrial vertebrates mainly of livestock. These small-sized animals are found in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. These act as vectors and transmit a wide range of protozoa, bacteria and viruses tick-borne diseases. These attach to host skin for blood-sucking and transmit disease pathogens through saliva. Ticks withdraw large volumes of blood from livestock and make them anemic and do significant weight loss. Ticks cause severe economic losses in livestock directly through blood-feeding and indirectly by transmitting protozoan, rickettsial and viral diseases This article highlights toxins/proteins secreted in tick saliva, and its important biological effects like anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant peptide, and immunomodulatory and anti-chemokine activities. The present article clears host-pathogen interactions and invasion of a host by ticks, biological effects of tick saliva toxins and its host immune responses. These toxins could be used as immunoreactive proteins as a prerequisite for the development of specific and sensitive immunoassays for the determination of tick-borne illness. The authors suggest important management strategies for successful control of cattle, bird and canine ticks. This article also suggests tick control methods such as physical, chemical, hormonal and including prophylactic use of antibody and vaccine immune therapy.


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How to Cite

YADAV, N., and R. K. UPADHYAY. “TICK SALIVA TOXINS, HOST IMMUNE RESPONSES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 13, no. 8, Aug. 2021, pp. 9-19, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2021v13i8.41444.



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