• Sri Angky Soekanto Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Namira Rosithahakiki Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Dewi Fatma Suniarti Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Mohamad Sahlan Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia


Objectives: The purpose of this present study was to analyze several fluoride-based varnishes: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF), nanosilver fluoride (NSF), and propolis fluoride (PPF). Fluoride-based varnish is proven to act as antibacterial and remineralization agents that arrested caries progression with minimal side effects. SDF, the golden standard for this study, was compared to NSF and PPF, which were made in our own laboratory, to evaluate their ability to release calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions and act as anticariogenic agents.

Methods: Human dentin discs were prepared and divided into control groups and treatment groups with SDF (38%), NSF (3.16%, 3.66%, and 4.16%), and PPF (3%, 6%, and 10%). The dentin discs were demineralized using a demineralization solution (pH 4.4) for 96 h. Each dentin disc in the treatment group received a topical application of various fluoride-based varnishes and then was subjected to pH-cycling for 8 days. The quantity of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions on the dentin discs surface was compared after being detected using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

Results: The result revealed that the calcium ion levels in groups NSF and PPF increased significantly compared to SDF. The levels of phosphate ions and fluoride ions in groups NSF and PPF increased significantly compared to SDF.

Conclusion: The study concluded that, in contrast to SDF, the prepared NSF and PPF fluoride-based varnishes were shown to release calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions in this study. Hence, NSF and PPF fluoride-based varnishes are promising as anticariogenic agents.

Keywords: Caries, Calcium ion, Phosphate ion, Fluoride ion, Silver diamine fluoride, Nano silver fluoride, Propolis fluoride, Demineralization, Remineralization.


1. FDI World Dental Federation. Oral Health Worldwide Report. Geneva, Switzerland: FDI World Dental Federation; 2014. p. 1-24.
2. Roberson TM, Heymann H. Studervant’s Art and Science of Operative Dentistry. 4th ed. North Carolina: Mosby, Inc.; 2002.
3. Hume GJ. Preservation and Restoration of Tooth Structure. 2nd ed. Queensland: Rob Watts; 2005.
4. Chu CH, Lo EC, Lin HC. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children. J Dent Res 2002;81:767-70.
5. Gupta A, Sinha N, Logani A, Shah N. An ex vivo study to evaluate the remineralizing and antimicrobial efficacy of silver diamine fluoride and glass ionomer cement Type VII for their proposed use as indirect pulp capping materials-Part I. J Conserv Dent 2011;14:113-6.
6. Horst JA, Ellenikiotis H, Milgrom PL. UCSF protocol for caries arrest using silver diamine fluoride: Rationale, indications and consent. J Calif Dent Assoc 2016;44:16-28.
7. Braydich-Stolle L, Hussain S, Schlager JJ, Hofmann MC. In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian germline stem cells. Toxicol Sci 2005;88:412-9.
8. Panyala NR, Peña-Méndez EM, Havel J. Silver or silvernanoparticles: A hazardous threat to the environment and human health? J Appl Biomed 2008;6:117-29.
9. Prabhu S, Poulose EK. Silver nanoparticles: Mechanism of antimicrobial action, synthesis, medical applications, and toxicity effects. Int Nano Lett 2012;2:32.
10. Burns J, Hollands K. Nano silver fluoride for preventing caries. Evid Based Dent 2015;16:8-9.
11. Santos VE Jr, Vasconcelos Filho A, Targino AG, Flores MA, Galembeck A, Caldas AF Jr, et al. A new silver-bullet” to treat caries in children-nano silver fluoride: A randomised clinical trial. J Dent 2014;42:945-51.
12. Yee R, Holmgren C, Mulder J, Lama D, Walker D, van Palenstein Helderman W. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for arresting caries treatment. J Dent Res 2009;88:644-7.
13. Ahuja V, Ahuja A. Apitherapy-a sweet approach to dental diseases-part II: Propolis. J Acad Adv Dent Res 2010;1:81-6.
14. Santana EQ, Almeida AA, Jabor AP, Chung MC. Determination of calcium and magnesium in hydroethanolic extracts of propolis by atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry. Rev Ciênc Farma Bás Apl 2009;29:77-80.
15. Kuropatnicki AK, Szliszka E, Krol W. Historical aspects of propolis research in modern times. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:964149.
16. Libério SA, Pereira AL, Araújo MJ, Dutra RP, Nascimento FR, Monteiro-Neto V, et al. The potential use of propolis as a cariostatic agent and its actions on mutans group streptococci. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;125:1-9.
17. Abou Neel EA, Aljabo A, Strange A, Ibrahim S, Coathup M, Young AM, et al. Demineralization-remineralization dynamics in teeth and bone. Int J Nanomedicine 2016;11:4743-63.
18. Pulit J, Banach M. Preparation of nanocrystalline silver using gelatin and glucose as stabilizing and reducing agents, respectively. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 2013;8:787-95.
19. Kumari RM, Thapa N, Gupta N, Kumar A, Nimesh S. Antibacterial and photocatalytic degradation efficacy of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Cordia dichotoma leaf extract. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016;7:045009.
20. Mei ML, Chu CH, Lo EC, Samaranayake LP. Fluoride and silver concentrations of silver diammine fluoride solutions for dental use. Int J Paediatr Dent 2013;23:279-85.
21. Reynolds EC, Cai F, Cochrane NJ, Shen P, Walker GD, Morgan MV, et al. Fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. J Dent Res 2008;87:344-8.
22. Huang R, Li M, Gregory RL. Bacterial interactions in dental biofilm. Virulence 2011;2:435-44.
23. Rosenblatt A, Stamford TC, Niederman R. Silver diamine fluoride: A caries silver-fluoride bullet”. J Dent Res 2009;88:116-25.
24. Takaisi-Kikuni NB, Schilcher H. Electron microscopic and microcalorimetric investigations of the possible mechanism of the antibacterial action of a defined propolis provenance. Planta Med 1994;60:222-7.
25. Targino AG, Flores MA, Dos Santos VE, de Godoy Bene Bezerra F, de Luna Freire H, Galembeck A, et al. An innovative approach to treating dental decay in children. A new anti-caries agent. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2014;25:2041-7.
26. Fung M, Wong M, Lo E, Chu CH. Arresting early childhood caries with silver diamine fluoride-a literature review. J Oral Hyg Health 2013;1:1-5.
27. Ten Cate JM. Contemporary perspective on the use of fluoride products in caries prevention. Br Dent J 2013;214:161-7.
28. Lou YL, Botelho MG, Darvell BW. Reaction of silver diamine [corrected] fluoride with hydroxyapatite and protein. J Dent 2011;39:612-8.
29. Huang S, Zhang CP, Wang K, Li GQ, Hu FL. Recent advances in the chemical composition of propolis. Molecules 2014;19:19610-32.
30. Menon S, Agarwal H, Kumar SR, Kumar SV. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal plant Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its application as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent against food borne pathogens. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:42-50.
383 Views | 382 Downloads
How to Cite
Soekanto, S. A., Rosithahakiki, N., Suniarti, D. F., & Sahlan, M. (2018). COMPARISON OF THE POTENCY OF SEVERAL FLUORIDE-BASED VARNISHES AS AN ANTICARIOGENIC ON CALCIUM, PHOSPHATE, AND FLUORIDE ION LEVELS. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 9, 55-59.
Original Article(s)