THE RECENT UPDATE OF DEOXYARBUTIN: A SKIN DEPIGMENTATION AGENT WITH TYROSINASE INHIBITION TARGETING
Melanin is produced through the process of melanogenesis, which serves to protect the skin from the damaging effects of UV radiation. Abnormal accumulation of melanin will aesthetically disturb even interfere with health. One of the clinical manifestations of abnormal accumulation of melanin is the incidence of melasma. Some of the tyrosinase enzyme inhibitor agents most widely used as Hydroquinone, Kojic acid and Arbutin do not give satisfactory results and cause serious side effects. Hydroquinone is known to cause ochronosis exogenous and cytotoxic. Kojic acid is known to cause allergies and mutagenic, while arbutinisis is known to have cytotoxic properties lower than hydroquinone, but less satisfactory depigmentation activity. There was a compound that has been synthesized by removing the hydroxy group of arbutin, known as deoxyarbutin (4-[Tetrahydro-2H-Pyrans-2-yl) oxy] phenol). Deoxyarbutin (dA) shows Ki 10-fold is lower than hydroquinone and 350-fold is lower than arbutin. IC50dA is 17.5+0.5 µmol/l, while the IC50 hydroquinone is 73.7+9.1 µmol/l. In terms of security, dA indicates that cell viability is 95% higher than hydroquinone. However, dA is thermolabile and photolabile. Several studies have shown satisfactory results to improve the stability of dA, that these compounds are considerable potential for further development as a depigmentation agent. The aim of this review is to describe how the potency of dA as a tyrosinase inhibitor interferes melanogenesis process through the latest depigmentation agent, its safety, efficacy and stability.
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