DESMODIUM GANGETICUM ROOT AQUEOUS EXTRACT MEDIATED SYNTHESIS OF NI NANOPARTICLE AND ITS BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION
Keywords:Green synthesis, Desmodium gangeticum, Ni Nanoparticles, Antimicrobial, DPPH, LLC PK1
Objective: A novel, eco-friendly method of Nickel nanoparticles synthesis using aqueous extract ofÂ Desmodium gangeticumÂ root (DG) has been reported in this study.
Methods: Novel approach on synthesis of Ni nanoparticles using NiCl2 as precursor and aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root as the reducing agent. Nanoparticles were characterized for its average size, morphology, functional moieties and thermal stability by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) respectively. Cytotoxicity was also determined against LLC PK1 cell lines using LDH assay.
Results: Less aggregate spherical shaped and mono-dispersed nanoparticles were synthesised whose size ranges from 20-30 nm in diameter. Nanoparticles were exhibit face centre cubic crystalline phase with an average size of ~23 nm which was obtained from XRD spectral pattern. Strong interaction between Desmodium gangeticum and nanoparticles was shown in TGA-thermogram. The reducing potential and total phenolic content of Ni nanoparticles was found to be same as that of Desmodium gangeticum. All the results were expressed as meanÂ±SD of n = 4-6 independent assays, p<0.05, whose data were analysed using ANOVA.
Conclusion: Biological activity of the nanoparticles and itsÂ toxicity wasÂ assessedÂ and found to possess the good antioxidant and reduction potential with significant antibacterial activity and were nontoxic.
Horcajada P, Chalati T, Serre C, Gillet B, Sebrie C, Baati T, et al. Porous metal-organic-framework nanoscale carriers as a potential platform for drug delivery and imaging. Nat Mater 2009;9(2):172-8.
Sellers K, Mackay C, Bergeson LL, Clough SR, Hoyt M, Chen J, et al. Nanotechnology and the Environment: Crc Press; 2008.
Murthy SK. Nanoparticles in modern medicine: state of the art and future challenges. Int J Nanomed 2007;2(2):129.
Bodor M, Santos RM, Chiang YW, Vlad M, Van T. In Utilization of nickel nanoparticles as a catalytic additive for mineral carbonation process acceleration, New Trends in Environmental and Materials Engineering, Galati, Romania, 28-30 October KU Leuven publication: Galati, Romania.
Lok J, Geim A, Maan J, Dubonos S, Kuhn LT, Lindelof P. Memory effects in individual submicrometer ferromagnets. Physical Rev B 1998;58(18):12201.
Wang SF, Xie F, Hu RF. Carbon-coated nickel magnetic nanoparticles modified electrodes as a sensor for determination of acetaminophen. Sensors Actuators B: Chem 2007;123(1):495-500.
Tseng WJ, Chen CN. Dispersion and rheology of nickel nanoparticle inks. J Mater Sci 2006;41(4):1213-9.
Rinaldi C, Franklin T, Zahn M, Cader T. Magnetic nanoparticles in fluid suspension: ferrofluid applications. Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology; 2004. p. 1.
Yao Y, Chen Y, Tai M, Wang D, Lin H. Magnetic anisotropy effects in nano-cluster nickel particles. Mater Sci Eng: A 1996;217:281-5.
Zach MP, Penner RM. Nanocrystalline nickel nanoparticles. Adv Mater 2000;12(12):878-83.
Hou Y, Kondoh H, Ohta T. Magnetic Properties and Fabrication of Monodisperse FePd Nanoparticles. Nanoparticles and Nanowire Building Blocks--Synthesis, Processing, Characterization and Theory; 2004. p. 23-7.
Kumar RV, Koltypin Y, Palchik O, Gedanken A. Preparation and characterization of nickelâ€“polystyrene nanocomposite by ultrasound irradiation. J Appl Polym Sci 2002;86(1):160-5.
Stopic S, Nedeljkovic J, Rakocevic Z, Uskokovic D. Influence of additives on the properties of spherical nickel particles prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. J Mater Res 1999;14:3059-65.
Carroll KJ, Reveles JU, Shultz MD, Khanna SN, Carpenter EE. Preparation of elemental Cu and Ni nanoparticles by the polyol method: an experimental and theoretical approach. J Phys Chem C 2011;115(6):2656-64.
Zhang H, Wu G, Chen X, Qiu X. Synthesis and magnetic properties of nickel nanocrystals. Mater Res Bull 2006;41(3):495-501.
Ma S, Srikanth V, Maik D, Zhang G, Staedler T, Jiang X. From carbon nanobells to nickel nanotubes. Appl Phys Lett 2009;94(1):13109-13109-3.
Jaleh B, Omidvar Dezfuli A, Jaberian Hamedan V, Najafi M, Tamari E. Preparation of nickel nanowire within polycarbonate membrane and removing polycarbonate by KrF excimer laser. Int J Phys Sci 2011;6:4775-80.
Ni XM, Su XB, Yang ZP, Zheng HG. The preparation of nickel nanorods in water-in-oil microemulsion. J Cryst Growth 2003;252(4):612-7.
Zhang HL, Li F, Liu C, Cheng HM. The facile synthesis of nickel silicide nanobelts and nanosheets and their application in electrochemical energy storage. Nanotechnol 2008;19(16):165606.
Khanna P, More PV, Jawalkar JP, Bharate B. Effect of reducing agent on the synthesis of nickel nanoparticles. Mater Lett 2009;63(16):1384-6.
Wu X, Xing W, Zhang L, Zhuo S, Zhou J, Wang G, et al. Nickel nanoparticles prepared by hydrazine hydrate reduction and their application in supercapacitor. Powder Technol 2012;224:162-7.
Kurian GA, Yagnesh N, Kishan RS, Paddikkala J. Methanol extract of Desmodium gangeticum roots preserves mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, protecting rat heart against oxidative stress induced by reperfusion injury. J Pharm Pharmacol 2008;60(4):523-30.
Rathi A, Rao CV, Ravishankar B, De S, Mehrotra S. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of the water decoction Desmodium gangeticum. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95(2):259-63.
Jabbar S, Khan M, Choudhuri M. The effects of aqueous extracts of Desmodium gangeticum DC.(Leguminosae) on the central nervous system. Pharm 2001;56(6):506-8.
Kurian GA, Suryanarayanan S, Raman A, Padikkala J. Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rat hearts. Chin Med 2010;5(1):3.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. indian medicinal plants; 1918.
Kurian GA, Paddikkala J. Administration of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) root protects rat heart against ischemic reperfusion injury induced oxidative stress. Indian J Exp Biol 2009:47;129-35.
Kurian GA, Philip S, Varghese T. Effect of aqueous extract of the Desmodium gangeticum DC root in the severity of myocardial infarction. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97(3):457-46.
Ahmad N, Sharma S, Singh V, Shamsi S, Fatma A, Mehta B. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Desmodium triflorum: a novel approach towards weed utilization. Biotechnol Res Int 2010, 2011.
Mishra PK, Singh N, Ahmad G, Dube A, Maurya R. Glycolipids and other constituents from Desmodium gangeticum with antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005;15(20):4543-6.
Jayachitra A, Krithiga N. Study on antioxidant property in selected medicinal plant extracts. Int J Med Aromatic Plants 2012;2(3):495-500.
Rice-Evans C, Miller N, Paganga G. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci 1997;2(4):152-9.
Huo L, Lu R, Li P, Liao Y, Chen R, Deng C, et al. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour. Grasas y Aceites 2011;62(2):149-54.
Harish K, Renu R, Kumar SR. Synthesis of nickel hydroxide nanoparticles by reverse micelle method and its antimicrobial activity. Res J Chem Sci 2011;1:42-8.
Li J, Yang M, Wei J, Zhou Z. Preparation and electrochemical performances of doughnut-like Ni (OH) 2â€“Co (OH) 2 composites as pseudocapacitor materials. Nanoscale 2012;4(15):4498-503.
Shah M. A versatile route for the synthesis of nickel oxide nanostructures without organics at low temperature. Nanoscale Res Lett 2008;3(7):255-9.
Coates J. Interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach. Encycl Anal Chem 2000:10815-37.
Kurian GA, Paddikkala J. Methanol extract of Desmodium gangeticum DC root mimetic post-conditioning effect in isolated perfused rat heart by stimulating muscarinic receptors. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;5(6):448-54.
Hemlal H, Ravi S. GC-MS, HPTLC and Antimicrobial analysis of Root extracts of Pseudarthria viscida Wight and Arn and Desmodium gangeticum (Linn) DC. Int Res J Biol Sci 2012;1:57-65.