SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES PREPARED BY DESMODIUM GANGETICUM ROOT AQUEOUS EXTRACT
Keywords:Desmodium gangeticum, FeO Nanoparticles, LLC-PK1 cell line, Antimicrobial agent, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity
Objective: Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by Desmodium gangeticum root aqueous extract.
Methods: Iron Oxide nanoparticles (FeO NPs) were synthesized by the reduction of iron chlorides using phyto-constituents as bio-reductants. The synthesis of FeO NPs was confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry and the average particle size was determined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Morphology of the synthesized FeO NPs was identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Further characterization of FeO NPs was done to study its nature by FTIR and TGA. Biological activity of FeO NPs was analyzed through its free radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial effect. Further, cytotoxicity was examined against LLC-PK1 cell lines using LDH assay.
Results: Thus synthesized particles exhibit rhombohedra crystalline phase. Morphology was identified as spherical and particle size ranges from 25 to 35 nm in diameter with an average size of 30 nm analyzed from SEM micrograph. FeO NPs showed a comparable antimicrobial activity as that of control drug (ciprofloxacin) towards Gram positive bacteria. Iron oxide nanoparticles were also found to be non-toxic by the LDH assay
Conclusion: Green synthesis of Fe nanoparticles using Desmodium gangeticum root aqueous extract was considered to be relatively safe and particles possesses significant biological activity.
Gupta AK, Gupta M. Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Biomater 2005;26:3995-4021.
Thakkar KN, Mhatre SS, Parikh RY. Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Nanomed: Nanotech Biol Med 2010;6:257-62.
Wang C, Jiqng W, Zhou Y, Wang Y, Chen Z. Synthesis of Î±-Fe ultrafine particles in a saturated salt solution/isopropanol/PVP microemulsion and their structural characterization. Mater Res Bull 2000;35:53-8.
Li A, Tai C, Zhao Z, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Jiang G, Hu J. Debromination of decabrominated diphenyl ether by resin-bound iron nanoparticles. Environ Sci Technol 2007;41:6841-6.
Frey NA, Peng S, Cheng K, Sun S. Magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization, and applications in bioimaging and magnetic energy storage. Chem Soc Rev 2009;38:2532-42.
Wu W, He Q, Jiang C. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and surface functionalization strategies. Nanoscale Res Lett 2008;3:397-415.
Goikolea E, Insausti M, Lezama L, Gil de Muro I, Garitaonandia J. Magnetic and structural characterization of silver-iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by the microemulsion technique. J Non-Cryst Solids 2008;354:5216-8.
Sinha S, Pan I, Chanda P, Sen SK. Nanoparticles fabrication using ambient biological resources. J Appl Biosci 2009;19:1113-30.
Mandal D, Bolander ME, Mukhopadhyay D, Sarkar G, Mukherjee P. The use of microorganisms for the formation of metal nanoparticles and their application. Appl Microbiol Biotech 2006;69:485-92.
Senthil M, Ramesh C. Biogenic Synthesis of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Using Tridax procumbens leaf extract and its antibacterial activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Digest J Nanomater Biostruct 2012;7:1655.
Kurian GA, Yagnesh N, Kishan RS, Paddikkala J. Methanol extract of Desmodium gangeticum roots preserves mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, protecting rat heart against oxidative stress induced by reperfusion injury. J Pharm Pharmacol 2008;60:523-30.
Govindarajan R, Rastogi S, Vijayakumar M, Shirwaikar AA, Rawat KS, Mehrotra S, et al. Studies on the antioxidant activities of Desmodium gangeticum. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26:1424-7.
Kurian GA, Seetharaman A, Subramanian N, Paddikkala J. A Novel Approach for Oral Delivery of Insulin via Desmodium gangeticum Aqueous Root Extract. J Young Pharm 2010;2:156-61.
Rathi A, Rao CV, Ravishankar B, De S, Mehrotra S. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of the water decoction Desmodium gangeticum. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:259-63.
Kurian GA, Paddikkala J. Administration of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum DC root protects the rat heart against oxidative stress induced by ischemic reperfusion injury. Indian J Exp Biol 2009;47:129-35.
Kurian GA, Philip S, Varghese T. Effect of aqueous extract of the Desmodium gangeticum DC root in the severity of myocardial infarction. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:457-61.
Kunchandy E, Rao M. Oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin. Int J Pharm 1990;58:237-40.
Mahdavi M, Namvar F, Ahmad MB, Mohamad R. Green Biosynthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed (Sargassum muticum) Aqueous Extract. Mol 2013;18:5954-64.
Rahman MM, Jamal A, Khan SB, Faisal M. Characterization and applications of as-grown b-Fe2O3 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method. J Nanopart Res 2011;13:3789-99.
Sun P, Zhang H, Liu C, Fang J, Wang M, Chen J, et al. Preparation and characterization of Fe3O4/CdTe magnetic/fluorescent nanocomposites and their applications in immuno-labeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells. Langmuir 2009;26:1278-84.
Kurian GA, Paddikkala J. Methanol extract of Desmodium gangeticum DC root mimetic post-conditioning effect in isolated perfused rat heart by stimulating muscarinic receptors. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012;5:448-54.
Sun HQ, Lu XM, Gao PJ. The exploration of the antibacterial mechanism of Fe3+against bacteria. Braz J Microbiol 2011;42:410-4.
Song FL, Gan RY, Zhang Y, Xiao Q, Kuang L, Li HB. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of selected chinese medicinal plants. Int J Mol Sci 2010;11:2362-72.